The global hydrogen market was valued at USD 187,517.3 Million in 2020 and is forecasted to reach USD 286,789.2 Million by the year 2027. The market is expected to witness a CAGR of 6.6% during the forecast period. The market is estimated to reach a market volume of about 99,863.7 tons in 2027.
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The market is anticipated to grow owing to the rise in the iron, steel, ammonia, and other value chemicals production where hydrogen plays a prime role. Furthermore, increase in the steam methane reforming (SMR) coupled with rising demand for green & clean fuel are also expected to boost the market growth.
Despite these driving factors, the stringent procurement policies by government and high cost associated with hydrogen production are expected to restrain the market growth. Supply chain disruptions and lockdowns hampered the market during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Rise in the steam methane reforming (SMR)
Steam methane reforming is a process wherein methane from natural gas is heated with steam and usually with a catalyst for producing a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in organic synthesis and as a fuel. The process is widely used for production of hydrogen. According to Forbes, as of June 2020, around 95% of the worlds hydrogen is generated using steam methane reforming process. Therefore, rise in the steam methane reforming process is anticipated to boost the market growth during the forecast period.
The global hydrogen market is segmented based on the technology, application, and delivery mode.
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Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)
Partial Oxidation (POX)
The thermal process is anticipated to hold the largest market share of around 85% owing to increasing adoption of this technology for hydrogen production. The electrolytic process is expected to witness the fastest growth rate due to growing technological advancements. The PEM or polymer electrolyte membrane segment is expected to cross a market volume of about 2,000 tons by 2027.
Hydrogen Fuel Cell
The ammonia production segment is estimated to hold the largest market share of around 50%, as a huge amount of hydrogen generated is consumed in ammonia plants. The renewable energy segment is anticipated to witness a growth rate of about 9.2% owing to high usage of hydrogen for production of renewable energy. Within the hydrogen fuel cell segment, the cell battery segment is expected to surpass a market volume of about 678.4 tons by 2027.
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By Delivery Mode,
The merchant segment is estimated to account for a dominant share of the market. In this delivery mode, the hydrogen generation process is carried out at a central production facility and then is transported to a consumer using a cylinder truck, pipeline, or a bulk tank.
On a regional basis, the global hydrogen market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World.
The Asia Pacific region is anticipated to hold the largest market share of about 70% owing to the presence of a large number of refineries in a majority of countries in the region. Also, large scale R&D investments in developing economies of this region is also estimated to fuel the market growth. Within this region, Chinas market volume is expected to surpass a size of 31,957 tons by 2027. Furthermore, within the Europe region, France is expected to hold a market size of around USD 3000 million by 2026 owing to growing number of green hydrogen projects in the country.
The hydrogen made through thermal process is relatively cheaper as compared to the electrolytic process. The cost of thermal process is the cheapest, ranging between USD 2 to 3 per kg, whereas the PEM process is costliest at around USD 7 per kg.
Experts in the market are anticipating manufacturing green hydrogen at around USD 1.50 per kg. This is anticipated to boost the research and development activities for production of green hydrogen by the manufacturers, so as to gain a competitive edge in the market.
Furthermore, transportation costs of hydrogen are dependent on the distance as well as volume. For instance, according to Elsevier Inc., as of July 2020, the cost of hydrogen transportation is USD 3.24 GJ. This is amongst the highest as compared to transportation of other gases. The source also stated that the cost of transporting the energy from natural gas through liquid hydrogen from Qatar to Japan is around USD 0.74/GJ and from Qatar to India is USD 0.8/GJ. Hence, hydrogen is a cost-effective alternative in case of short-distance transportation.
Supply-Demand: Gap Analysis
The demand and supply gap is expected to be different for different countries. For instance, Canada is expected to have a demand and supply gap of 52% by 2027 as compared to 17% in 2019.
Moreover, the demand is also expected to be different for different industries. For instance, according to the International Energy Agency, as of June 2020, the demand for pure hydrogen is around 70 mt per year. This demand is mostly for chemical production and oil refining. On the other hand, 0.2% of hydrogen is used for electricity generation and plays a very minimal role.
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Commercial production of hydrogen has 4 main sources. These are oil, electrolysis, natural gas, and coal. Natural gas contributes to a majority of 48% of the total hydrogen production globally. Similarly, oil, coal, and electrolysis contribute to 30%, 18%, and 4% of the total hydrogen production across the globe, respectively.
Hydrogen can be stored physically in the form of liquid or gas. Liquid hydrogen needs to be stored at cryogenic temperatures as the boiling point for hydrogen at 1 atomospheric pressures is around -252.8 Degree Celcius. It can be stored within solids (by absorption ) or on surface of solids (by adsorption). Storage in the form of gas needs high-pressure tanks, such as 5,000 to 10,000 psi tank pressure.
The Chinese government aims to have 5,000 FCEVs on the road by 2020; 50,000 by 2025; and 1 million by 2030. In France, the government has pledged around USD 107 million (EUR 90 million) in state aid to develop a hydrogen society in the country and for supporting the maritime projects. In Netherlands, offshore wind power is a vital enabler for scaling up the production of carbon neutral hydrogen. Planned projects in the Dutch sector of the North Sea add up to 11 GW of offshore wind capacity by 2030, while there is enough space for a further scale up to 20-40 GW. Similar to China, France, and the Netherlands, governments of countries such as Canada, Germany, Japan, Norway, South Korea, the U.S., and the UK, among others are also investing in hydrogen production.
The production cost for hydrogen is very sensitive to the price of electricity. It is also dependent based on country as well as process of production. For instance, the production cost through natural gas via steam reforming of methane ranges between USD 3.50 per kg for small systems and USD 1.25 per kg for large systems. This is accompanied with USD 0.3 per kg for natural gas.
Key players operating in the global hydrogen market include Air Liquide International S.A., Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Aquahydrex, Atawey, Claind, Cummins, Ergousp, Fuel Cell Energy, Green Hydrogen Systems, Heliogen, Hydrogenics, HyTech Power, Inox, ITM Power, Linde plc, McPhy Energy, Messer Group GmbH, NEL Hydrogen, Plug Power, PowerTap, Showa Denko, Starfire Energy, Taiyo Nippon, Uniper, Weldstar, Inc., Xebec Adsorption Inc., and Other Prominent Players.
The cumulative market share of the nine major players is near about 68%. These market players are involved in collaborations, mergers & acquisitions, and new product launches to strengthen their market presence. For instance, in September 2021, Plug Power announced its plans for building its largest green hydrogen production unit in Fresno County, California. The unit is estimated to produce about 30 metric tons of liquid green hydrogen everyday and serve its customers from San Diego to Vancouver.
The global hydrogen market report provides insights on the below pointers:
- Market Penetration: Provides comprehensive information on the market offered by the prominent players
- Market Development: The report offers detailed information about lucrative emerging markets and analyzes penetration across mature segments of the markets
- Market Diversification: Provides in-depth information about untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments
- Competitive Landscape Assessment: Mergers & acquisitions, certifications, product launches in the global Hydrogen market have been provided in this research report. In addition, the report also emphasizes the SWOT analysis of the leading players.
- Product Development & Innovation: The report provides intelligent insights on future technologies, R&D activities, and breakthrough product developments
- Industry Outlook: Sources of hydrogen production; production cost analysis by country and various processes; global hydrogen production roadmaps; hydrogen economy (Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, South Korea, the U.S., the UK); overview of hydrogen storage
- Pricing Analysis: Pricing Analysis by Process Type; Hydrogen Transport Costs based on Distance & Volume; Storage Cost
- Supply-Demand: Gap Analysis: Gap Analysis by Country; Current & Potential Demand for Hydrogen, by sector, by region; Potential Demand for Hydrogen, by Industry- 2019-2070 (in MtH2/Year)
The global Hydrogen market report answers questions such as:
- What is the market size and forecast of the Global Hydrogen Market?
- What are the inhibiting factors and impact of COVID-19 on the Global Hydrogen Market during the assessment period?
- Which are the products/segments/applications/areas to invest in over the assessment period in the Global Hydrogen Market?
- What is the competitive strategic window for opportunities in the Global Hydrogen Market?
- What are the technology trends and regulatory frameworks in the Global Hydrogen Market?
- What is the market share of the leading players in the Global Hydrogen Market?
- What modes and strategic moves are considered favorable for entering the Global Hydrogen Market?
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