Today is Thursday, October 15, the 288th day of 2015. There are 77 days left in the year.
Highlights in history on this date:
1529 - Suleiman I, Sultan of Turkey, is forced to end siege of Vienna.
1583 - The Gregorian calendar goes into effect in the Papal States by decree of Pope Gregory XIII and is soon adopted in other countries.
1917 - Mata Hari, a Dutch dancer who spied for the Germans, is executed by a firing squad outside Paris.
1928 - German dirigible Graf Zeppelin makes the first commercial flight across the Atlantic Ocean, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, in the U.S.
1945 - The former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is executed.
1946 - Former head of the Nazi air force, Hermann Goering, sentenced to death as a war criminal, commits suicide by poison hours before his scheduled execution.
1951 - The situation comedy "I Love Lucy" starring Lucille Ball premieres in the United States on CBS television.
1958 - U.S. Atomic Energy Commission scientists detonate nine nuclear devices at their Nevada test site as they race to complete tests before October 31, when a one-year suspension of U.S. and British atomic tests will be announced.
1964 - Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev is removed from office and replaced as premier by Alexei N. Kosygin and as Communist Party secretary by Leonid I. Brezhnev.
1965 - The first draft card is burned in the United States as an anti-Vietnam War protest.
1966 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs a bill creating the Department of Transportation.
1968 - Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia sign a treaty allowing Soviet troops to remain in Czechoslovakia.
1970 - Canadian troops move into Montreal and Quebec City following upsurge of Quebec separatist terrorism.
1974 - Israel denounces as illegal a decision by the U.N. General Assembly to invite the Palestine Liberation Organization to participate in debate on Palestinian issue.
1978 - Syrian troops agree to withdraw from several key positions in Christian east Beirut under an agreement worked out by seven Arab nations.
1987 - Fiji's governor general resigns, ending decade of allegiance by the South Pacific island to British crown.
1989 - Thousands of blacks hold "victory marches" in South Africa to celebrate the imminent release of eight political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu.
1990 - Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
1994 - Democratically elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to Haiti after U.S. troops landed there in September.
1998 - The Yugoslav military signs an accord allowing NATO air surveillance over rebellious Kosovo province.
1999 - Pakistan's army chief, Gen. Pervez Musharraf, declares a state of emergency and names himself chief executive, two days after he and his troops ousted the democratically elected government in a bloodless coup.
2008 - Thousands of Christians from around the world march in a colorful holiday parade in Jerusalem to commemorate a Jewish holiday and show their support for Israel.
2010 - Workers hug, cheer and set off fireworks as the huge drill breaks through the last stretch of rock deep in the Swiss Alps. There was delight at the end of the tunnel -- the world's longest -- when it is completed.
2012 - Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton takes responsibility for security at the U.S. consulate in Libya, where the U.S. ambassador and three other Americans were killed in a Sept. 11, 2012, attack.
2013 -- Iranian negotiators present world powers with what they said was a plan to break a decade of deadlock over Tehran's nuclear program, declaring the time had come to end the country's "walk in the dark" of international isolation and crippling sanctions.
2014 -- A widely respected Shiite Muslim cleric is convicted in Saudi Arabia of sedition and other charges and is sentenced to death, raising fears of renewed unrest from his supporters in the kingdom and neighboring Bahrain.
Virgil, Roman poet (70 B.C.-19 B.C.); Evangelista Torricelli, Italian inventor of barometer (1608-1647); Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, German philosopher (1844-1900); P(elham) G(renville) Wodehouse, British-American writer (1881-1975); Richard Carpenter, U.S. singer/drummer (1946--); Penny Marshall, U.S. actress/director (1943--).
Thought For Today:
Do what you can, with what you have, where you are -- Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1858-1919).