Today is Friday, October 2, the 275th day of 2015. There are 90 days left in the year.
Highlights in history on this date:
1187 - Besieged Crusader forces in Jerusalem capitulate to Muslim commander Saladin. The Christians retake the holy city in 1229.
1518 - Cardinal Wolsey devises the "Peace of London" among England, France, Emperor Maximilian I, Spain and the Papacy.
1780 - British spy John Andre is hung in Tappan, New York.
1804 - England's populace is mobilized to resist possible invasion by France.
1823 - Spain's King Ferdinand VII, restored by France which also crushed a Spanish rebellion, issues decree for execution of his enemies.
1835 - The first battle of the Texas Revolution takes place as American settlers defeat Mexican cavalry near the Guadalupe River.
1836 - Charles Darwin returns to England from a trip to South America where he documented animal and plant life for his book, "On the Origin of Species."
1870 - Rome becomes the capital of Italy.
1889 - First Pan American Conference is held in Washington.
1918 - King Faisal I enters Damascus to set up an independent Arab state.
1919 - U.S. President Woodrow Wilson suffers a stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed.
1924 - League of Nations adopts Geneva Protocol for peaceful settlement of international disputes.
1934 - Royal Indian Navy is formed.
1940 - H.M.S. Empress of Britain, carrying child war refugees to Canada, is sunk during World War II.
1941 - German army launches all-out drive against Moscow in World War II.
1944 - Nazi troops crush the two-month-old Warsaw Uprising, during which 250,000 people are killed.
1950 - The comic strip "Peanuts," created by Charles M. Schulz, is first published in nine U.S. newspapers.
1958 - The former French colony of Guinea in West Africa proclaims its independence.
1962 - Egypt sends troops to Yemen to support republicans against Saudi-backed royalists.
1967 - Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court,becoming the first African-American appointed to the highest U.S. court.
1988 - Pakistan's Supreme Court orders that planned elections in November be open to all political parties.
1992 - The U.N. Security Council passes a resolution to seize Iraqi oil assets currently frozen abroad. The impounded assets, valued between $500 million to $1 billion, are to help pay for U.N. disarmament, relief efforts and compensation for victims of Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait.
1995 - Director of Russia's famed Kirov Ballet, Anatoly Malkov, is arrested for corruption and bribery running into millions of dollars. He later resigns.
2001 - Seeking the full backing of its 18 NATO allies, the United States provides "clear and compelling" evidence of Osama bin Laden's involvement in Sept. 11 attacks.
2003 - A U.S. District Court judge declines to dismiss all charges against Sept. 11 terrorist suspect Zacarias Moussaoui, and instead bars government prosecutors from seeking the death penalty in his case.
2006 - A gunman storms an Amish schoolhouse in Pennsylvania, killing five girls before committing suicide. It is the third deadly U.S. school shooting in less than a week.
2007 - North Korean leader Kim Jong Il welcomes South Korea's president to Pyongyang for the start of the second-ever summit between the divided Koreas since World War II.
2009 - In a vote of high drama, the bustling Brazilian carnival city of Rio de Janeiro gets the 2016 Olympics, a first for South America.
2012 - Georgia's President Mikhail Saakashvili unexpectedly concedes that his party had lost the country's parliamentary election and his opponent had the right to become prime minister, setting the stage for political turmoil in the final year of his presidency.
2014 -- Turkey's parliament gives government new powers to launch military incursions into Syria and Iraq, and to allow foreign forces to use its territory for possible operations against the Islamic State group.
Richard III, king of England (1452-1485); Paul von Hindenburg, German president (1847-1934); Ferdinand Foch, French soldier (1851-1929); Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi, Indian statesman-reformer (1869-1948); Groucho Marx, U.S. comedian (1895-1977); Graham Greene, British writer (1904-1991), Don McLean, U.S. singer (1945--), Sting, British singer (1951--).
Thought For Today:
It wasn't until quite late in life that I discovered how easy it is to say 'I don't know' -- W. Somerset Maugham, English writer (1874-1965).