President Barack Obama said in his State of the Union Wednesday that "one in 10 Americans still cannot find work." But in nine U.S. states the figure is much worse _ closer to one in five, according to Labor Department data released Friday.
The figures are a stark illustration of how tough it is to find a full-time job, even as the economy has grown for two straight quarters. The official unemployment rate of 10 percent doesn't include people who are working part-time but would prefer full-time work, or the unemployed who have given up looking for work.
When those groups are included, the devastation in many parts of the country is clear: Michigan's so-called "underemployment" rate was 21.5 percent in 2009, the highest in America. California's was 21.1 percent, while Oregon's was 20.7 percent.
Many companies and state governments have cut back on workers' hours during the recession. And in the past six months, nearly 2 million unemployed workers have given up on their job hunts. Nationwide, the underemployment rate was 17.3 percent in December, just below the 17.4 percent reached in October, the highest on records dating from 1994.
In another three states _ South Carolina, Nevada, and Rhode Island _ the underemployment rate is above 19 percent. And in three more _ Arizona, Florida and Tennessee _ it's above 18 percent.
The figures also illustrate how much higher the official unemployment rate could go in these states. Many of the discouraged workers are likely to start looking again as the economy improves. That would have the effect of raising the unemployment rate.
Michigan's economy is still struggling from the downturn in its battered automotive sector. The state lost 15,700 jobs in December, according to government data released last week, but the unemployment rate dropped slightly to 14.6 percent from 14.7 percent.
That's because 31,000 people left the labor force. Michigan has the nation's highest unemployment rate.
California, meanwhile, was hit hard by the housing slump and its ports have suffered from last year's downturn in international trade. Its unemployment rate is 12.4 percent.